Location: India

Thursday, September 28, 2006

Some questions and Conclusion

Hari OM

1) If I am Brahman, am I the creator of the world? How can this be when I am unable to control the world?
Answer is simple: IT is very well known that yogis are able to control the world similar as avatars. Thus if the seeker is able to control his mind and go beyond the mind, he can control the world because world is what he perceives and “his perception” is important and not that the “world already exists & I perceive it”. The world is perceived and created by me as in dream because if I put little effort, I can control the world.

2) What about the concept of God which is explained in scriptures too?
Answer is also simple: The God who creates the world is “I” alone as Brahman. There is no God apart from me because God also gets existence from Consciousness. As in deep sleep, there is no God but I am still there. Thus I am permanent whereas the subjective God is not permanent but dependent on me. This means that God becomes temporary unless the God is “I” alone. Thus scriptures are not wrong at all but only thing is the God mentioned by them is “I” or Self or Consciousness or “JEEVA” alone.

3) If there is only one jeeva, then what about other “conscious” beings? Other conscious beings can be explained only through reflected consciousness as jeeva which would lead to aneka jeeva vaada?
Answer is again simple: Other conscious beings themselves (like God) are dependent on “I” or Jeeva for their existence. IF I deny, they will never exist. Thus this multiplicity of jeeva itself is an illusion of ignorance affecting the eka jeeva or Brahman with ignorance.
What about liberated beings, jeevan muktaas and avatars seen in the world? If eka jeeva vaada is accepted, they also will be illusions. This is against scriptures proclaiming Shuka Deva (son of Vyaasa) as ever-liberated.
Answer is simple: A person dreams and sees liberated beings in dream. But reality is that those liberated beings he saw in dream are not real. Similarly the liberated beings seen in waking state too are not real but only illusions caused by the ignorance which binds the jeeva.

4) How can it be that liberated beings are seen by ignorance as liberation means “removal of ignorance”?
Answer: Liberation and bondage both are concepts of the mind alone. As per the reality, there is no liberation or bondage for the Self or Brahman which is nitya mukta. Thus when “liberated” is mentioned, that is empirical level. This means this “liberated” as illusory as “bonded” in the world (like dream world). Similarly when “beings” (plural or duality) comes into picture, that itself is an illusion and hence they can be valid only when ignorance is there. Thus ignorance causes liberation and bondage – similarly causes multiplicity. But by “liberation” or removal of ignorance that sruthi mentions is that state where there is no duality at all which is beyond both liberation and bondage. Thus there is no fault at what has been explained.

5) Doesn’t the eka jeeva vaada theory go against Gaudapada’s statement in Mandukya Karika that “there is no jeeva born at all – this is not at all possible; the reality is that there is nothing born at all”?
Answer: No, this isn’t against the gaudapada statement because gaudapada says that “no jeeva is born” and says that “there is nothing born” (agreeing that “that which exists only exists”). This means the jeeva which exists always exists as the non-dual reality of Brahman and that jeeva concept which says it is born is not at all present. Thus gaudapada statement is valid enough for eka jeeva vaada also as the jeeva is unborn Brahman only. Gaudapada statement is also valid for other jeeva theories because in those cases, jeeva is only an illusion which means that it is never created or has any existence but only Brahman as its substratum exists.

These in general are the doubts that might arise in the mind of the seeker as well intellectual scholars regarding eka jeeva vaada. Even though Sankara accepts aneka kartha bhoktha or many jeevas but that is only from empirical viewpoint & this can be very well accepted by eka jeeva vaada by adding the clause that “aneka jeevas are the cause of the ignorance of one jeeva alone”. Since Svapna or dream is considered one of the best examples to point to the ultimate reality of adviteeya Brahman as per Gaudapada and Sankara too.

Thus Gaudapada says in Mandukya Karika
Svapna maaye yathaa dristam gandharva nagaram yathaa
Tathaa vishwam idam dristam vedantheshu vichakshanaihi

As a dream world is seen, as the world seen amongst clouds – similarly the waking world is perceived and explained by knowers of Vedanta (experiencers of Brahman).

Sankara says in Dakshinamurthy astakam
Vishwam darpana drishyamaana nagaree thulyam, nija anthar gathan
Pashyan atmani mayayaa bahir iva udbhootaam yathaa nidrayaa

The world is like a reflected world seen in a mirror – which is perceived inner or really present inner in the Self & seen as if present outside like SVAPNA LOKA or dream world.

These are but very few examples of how Advaita accepts Svapna as one of the best ways to analyze the waking state & point to the ultimate reality of Brahman. It is also interesting to note that Yoga Vasistha too considers svapna as an important analogy and explains about the same in many places as well as uses similar stories which are like dream-stories to put forth the ultimate reality of Brahman.

Since Svapna is clearly accepted by Advaita and svapna clearly points out to Eka jeeva vaada, it is but correct that this theory is the best theory of explanation of the jeeva concept or the illusory world concept. Yes, this theory is very tough indeed to apprehend but when analyzed with respect to dream – it is very easy to understand. This eka jeeva vaada is very closely related to drishti sristhi vaada (the theory that world is created when it is perceived by the perceiver or drik) rather than sristi dristhi vaada (the theory that God created the world & this already created world is perceived by the perceiver or seeker). Madhusudana Saraswathi seems to support Eka jeeva vaada. All the important later acharyas do support eka jeeva vaada so does the great Chitsukhacharya in his chitsukhi where he supports the views of vimuktatman. Madhusudana Saraswathi mentions about eka jeeva vaada in his sidhantha bindu (which is a commentary on Sankara’s dasha sloki) as well as Advaita Siddhi. Appayya Dikshitar explains this view in his Sastra siddhanta lesha sangraha (which is an encyclopedia of different views of Advaita as per different acharyas – this has a detailed commentary called Krishnaalankaara of Achyuta krishnaananda Teertha). Nrsimhaasrama deals with eka jeeva vaada proving it through sruthi, yukthi (different anumaaanas are given to prove this vaada) in his Vedanta Tattva Viveka.
We have to still remember that from ultimate viewpoint, there is no vaada or theory at all to speak about but still eka jeeva vaada is very near to ajaathi vaada or the ultimate theory that there is no world created, no jeeva creation but only non-dual reality of Brahman exists.

Eka jeeva vaada is final strengthened by Sankaracharya’s motto of Brahma Satyam Jagan Mithya Jeevo Brahmaiva na parah (Brahman is the reality, world is only an illusion, jeeva is Brahman only not different from Brahman).

Hari OM


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